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This week discover exurbia, moonshine, and the Mechanical Turk, look back at the history of the Berlin Wall, aviation, and Veteran's Day, and then see the other goodies we found. Bon appetit from librarians Wendy, Jennifer, Maria, and Charlotte.
Tip of the Week
So many holidays and the clock's ticking--turn to LII's many websites with holiday recipes, crafts, shopping tips, greeting cards, and traditions. Need to get away from it all? Browse the travel section!
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Kristallnacht: The November 1938 Pogroms
"On November 9, 1938, the Nazis unleashed a wave of pogroms against Germany's Jews. In the space of a few hours, thousands of synagogues and Jewish businesses and homes were damaged or destroyed. This event came to be called Kristallnacht ('Night of Broken Glass') for the shattered store windowpanes." This site features an exhibition with a historical overview and details about what was destroyed. From the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22852
Temperance & Prohibition
Collection of essays, images, and other material on the history of prohibition in the U.S., "a measure designed to reduce drinking by eliminating the businesses that manufactured, distributed, and sold alcoholic beverages." Covers the U.S. brewing industry, the Woman's Crusade of 1873-74, the Anti-Saloon League, the Prohibition Party, and related topics. From The Ohio State University Department of History and the Goldberg Program for Excellence in Teaching.
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22866
Amazon Mechanical Turk: Artificial Artificial Intelligence
This online service allows computer software designers to pose "Human Intelligence Tasks" (HITs) for people to answer. Those who answer are paid a nominal fee, and the designers incorporate the answers into their programs. Includes a FAQ and list of HITs. (The name for the service is based on an 18th century hoax in which a "mechanical chess-playing automaton" beat almost all opponents.) From Amazon.com.
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22867
Chess: The Mechanical Turk
This 2005 article discusses how "during the 18th century, a chess-playing automaton held audiences in Europe and America in thrall" and how the machine was found to be a hoax in that "the Turk was actually manipulated by someone hidden in the cabinet during the performance." Includes details about how the Mechanical Turk operated and how Edgar Allan Poe almost discovered the truth. From the Credit Suisse online magazine.
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22865
The History of Veterans Day
A timeline about the history of Veteran's Day. Topics include the first Armistice Day in 1919 (which followed the "implementation of an armistice ... between the Allies and Germany at the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of November, 1918)," the changing of the name of the holiday to Veteran's Day in 1954, and how this holiday was designated by the federal government as the first Monday in October from 1971-1977. From the U.S. Army.
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22854
United States Army Junior ROTC
"The United States Army's Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps, or JROTC, is designed to teach high school students the value of citizenship, leadership, service to the community, personal responsibility, and a sense of accomplishment, while instilling in them self-esteem, teamwork, and self-discipline." This site provides a brief history of the program, an overview of the curriculum, a list of high schools with JROTC programs, and related material.
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22870
Policy Issues: Moonshine
Policy publication about "moonshine" (or "non-commercial alcohol"), "beverages [that] are generally not taxed or regulated, and their sale and purchase cannot be easily monitored or quantified." Provides a fact sheet and blue book module highlighting traditional non-commercial beverages, public health considerations, and policy implications. From the International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP).
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22864
Capital Punishment: All Points of View on the Death Penalty
This site "deals with the execution of criminals found guilty of having committed serious crimes. ... Most democracies in the world have abandoned the death penalty. The U.S. and Japan and South Korea are the only exceptions." Features data, a description of methods (such as hanging, electric chair, firing squad, and lethal injection), material about the status of the death penalty worldwide, and links to related sites. From the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22858
A Sad Flower in the Sand
Companion website to a film about John Fante, "the renegade author whose highly autobiographical novels illustrate his deep-rooted love of Los Angeles and his struggles working through poverty and prejudice." Features a biographical essay, brief profiles of selected works (including "Ask the Dust" and "Full of Life"), clips from the film, and links to related websites. From Independent Television Service (ITVS).
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22779
California Museum: Hall of Fame
Biographies of individuals inducted into this hall of fame established in 2006 for "extraordinary Californians who have made their mark on the state, the nation and the world." Some of the individuals profiled include Cesar Chavez, Walt Disney, Amelia Earhart, Frank Gehry, Bille Jean King, Robert Mondavi, John Muir, Sally Ride, and Alice Walker. From the California Museum for History, Women & the Arts (formerly the California State History Museum).
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22876
Pier 70 San Francisco: Historic Shipyard at Potrero Point
Background and historic and modern photos of "Potrero Point ... [which] was the most important center of western U.S. heavy industry for well over 100 years." Also provides material about "Dogpatch," a neighborhood on the eastern edge of Potrero Hill, which "includes the city's largest collection of 19th and early 20th Century workers cottages." Also includes details about current uses and future development. From a member of the Citizens Advisory Group for Pier 70.
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/19612
Japan In-Depth: History & Culture: Traditional Annual Events
Collection of descriptions of traditional annual festivals and events in Japan, such as the Sapporo Snow Festival, Setsubun (bean-throwing festival), Soma-Nomaoi (wild horse racing), Dai-Chochin Matsuri (giant lantern festival), Shichi-Go-San (children's shrine-visiting day), and Tori-no-Ichi (rake fair). From the Japan National Tourist Organization.
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22873
October 3 -- Day of German Unity
"The Day of German Unity, Germany's national holiday, marks the day in 1990 on which the German Democratic Republic (East) acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany." Features an account of reunification and personal memories of the day the Berlin Wall fell. From the German Embassy, Washington, D.C.
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22851
On This Day, 29 October: 1998: Apartheid Report Accuses South Africa Leaders
Historical essay related to the publication in 1998 of the report of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) that "accused leading figures from across the political spectrum of human rights violations." Includes a timeline, audio clips, and a link to 1998-99 coverage of the report, the hearings, and key figures mentioned in the report (such as P.W. Botha and Mangosuthu Buthelezi). From the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22863
Milestones of Flight
Companion to an exhibition highlighting "some of the major 'firsts' in aviation and space history." Features illustrated descriptions of the 1903 Wright Flyer (first successful airplane), Ryan NYP "Spirit of St. Louis" (first solo transatlantic flight), Sputnik I (first artificial satellite), Gemini IV (first American spacewalk), Breitling Orbiter 3 Gondola (first nonstop around-the-world balloon flight), and others. From the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22875
Special of the Month: Aviation Month
This annotated collection of links celebrates Aviation History Month in November. Topics include aviation and flight history, biographies, museums, women in aviation, and World War II. Includes a section on aviator Adela Riek Scharr ("the first women licensed to fly commercially in St. Louis and one of the first women to serve as a pilot with the Women's Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron") and aviation activities for children. From the St. Louis Public Library.
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22874
The World Conservation Union (IUCN): Global Marine Programme
Background and publications from this program focusing on marine issues such as "integrated coastal and marine management, fisheries, marine protected areas, larger marine ecosystems, as well as coral reef rehabilitation, and the effects of coral bleaching and climate change." Features reports, photos, press releases, and links to related websites. From the World Conservation Union (IUCN).
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22860
American Indian Heritage Month
This site commemorates the historical participation of Native Americans in the U.S. armed forces. Topics include American Indian Medal of Honor Recipients, Native American women veterans, and Native Americans in World War II and the Korean War. Includes links to related sites. From the U.S. Department of Defense.
LII Item: http://lii.org/cs/lii/view/item/22853
Thanks for reading LII New This Week!
Jennifer English, Liaison to Califa Library Group
Wendy Hyman, Senior Editor
Maria Brandt, Associate Editor
Charlotte Bagby, Senior Weeder