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This guide is designed for anyone who is looking for information on the Holocaust denial movement. Both print-based and Web-based sources are included.
Holocaust denial has become one of the most important vehicles for contemporary anti-Semitism. It is the invention of a collection of long-time anti-Semites and apologists for Hitler. Holocaust-denial discourse attempts to prove that the Jewish Holocaust did not happen. Also known as "Holocaust Revisionism", the individuals seeking to deny the Holocaust often have different motives and beliefs, but they all share at one point: that there was no systematic attempt by Nazi Germany to exterminate European Jewry. Those who deny the Holocaust believe that the Jews fabricated the "Big Lie" in order to gain sympathy for a homeland and to extort money, in the form of reparations payments, from Germany. The Nazis themselves can be thought of as the first Holocaust revisionists, for they tried to conceal their extermination program behind euphemisms such as "special treatment" and "final solution to the Jewish problem." Present-day revisionists all share deep seated anti-Semitic feelings, a hatred of Israel, and a need to rehabilitate and glorify Germany, fascism, and the Third Reich. This pathfinder includes resources about Holocaust revisionism and and works of Holocaust revisionism. Although those who deny the Holocaust write in many languages and in many countries, the scope of this pathfinder has been limited to works in English. This pathfinder has been divided into many categories: Web Sites, Books, Newsgroups, and Reference Tools
The Internet provides a unique forum for Holocaust denial. While deniers continue their offline activities, such as disseminating pamphlets and organizing conferences, many web sites provide a cheap and efficient way of presenting large amounts of material in an easily accessible form. The Internet, through hyperlinks, email and discussion boards, encourages the small denial groups to form an online community which can communicate quickly and easily. The prevalence of Holocaust denial on the internet is forcing counter-deniers to enter the debate, challenging them to respond to denial claims, to examine the underlying ideologies of denial, and to expose methodological errors. Below are a list of Holocaust denial web sites and counter-denial web sites.
Arthur Butz's Personal Web site
Author: Arthur Butz
Web page of Arthur R. Butz. Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Northwestern University, in Evanston, Illinois, USA. This web site includes essays and articles questioning the existence of the Holocaust.
Authors: Ernst Zundel and Ingrid Rimland
Ingrid Rimland's The Zundelsite is dedicated to the life and work of famous Canadian Holocaust denier Ernst Zundel. Rimland is his wife and webmaster and she promotes her books and his Holocaust denial discourse, which is disguised as a political platform.
IHR (Institute for Historical Review)
Authors: Mark Weber and Greg Raven
This web site claims to offer scholarly information and thoughtful commentary on a wide range of historical issues, including the "Holocaust," Auschwitz, World War II, Stalin, Hitler. It is known to be the largest anti-Semitic publisher in the world. They also publish a periodical called the Journal of Historical Review which can be accessed from most Academic Libraries.
The Barnes Review
Author: Willis Carto
The Barnes Review, a bi-monthly newsletter published by one of the world's biggest anti-Semites attempts to tell the truth from a racist point of view. Carto claims that most of the media is published from a Jewish perspective that is twisted and inaccurate. His journal attempts to bring the whole truth to the public.
CODOH (Committee for the Open Debate on the Holocaust)
Author: Bradley Smith
This site claims to promote intellectual freedom with regard to this one historical event, which in turn will promote intellectual freedom toward all historical events (thus all other issues). We have chosen to concentrate on the gas chamber stories and war crimes trials because they are emblematic of the allegedly unique monstrosity of the Germans before and during World War II.
Author: Bradley Smith
This web site is the newsletter of CODOH
David Irving / Focal Point Publications
Focal Point Publications, David Irving's publishing company, strives to campaign for Real History. He publishes a newsletter called the "Action Report" as well as indexes his site into various categories: online eBooks for free download, archived Action Report newsletters, links to Traditional Enemies of Free Speech, The Deborah Lipstadt trial index, and an alphabetical index to all of his web files.
Air Photo Evidence
Author: John C. Ball
John Ball's Website claims to illustrate with air photo evidence, that there were no holes in the alleged gas chambers in Auschwitz - Birkenau. He claims that the eye-witnesses have all lied.
Author: Germane Rudolf/Castle Hill Publishers
This web site's goal is to scientifically investigate historical events, particularly those of the 20th century, without limitations imposed by dogmas or axioms. Its goal is to correct unjust reporting or accounts of events of the 20th century. This web site's goal, like all other Holocaust denial web sites is to further public debate about the subject generally described as the 'Holocaust'
Campaign for Radical Truth in History
Author: Michael Hoffmann II
This web site claims to be the preeminent source for truly independent research. This site claims to have "investigative reporting that peers into topics you simply cannot find discussed in today's controlled media." Hoffman's site delves into the mysteries of history and he claims that his organization is at the cutting edge of legitimate, studious conspiracy research.
Author: Fredrick Toben
This web site is the organization run by Dr. Fredrick Toben. He publishes a newsletter, and various web documents about Holocaust denial. A very small and simple web site with his main arguments on the front page: that the gas chambers did not exist during World War II
Carlos Whitlock Porter
Author: Carlos Whitlock Porter's personal web site, where he promotes his book "Made in Russia: The Holocaust" and he rants on and on how he hates the world's Jews and he strongly believes in a world Jewish conspiracy theory. He is both humourous and sarcastic and bitter in his site. He coins the term Holoco$t and Holohoax.
Web Sites that Refute Holocaust Denial
ADL (Anti Defamation League)
Author: Abraham Foxman and Howard Berkowitz
For more than 88 years, ADL has been combating anti-Semitism and bigotry of all kinds. The ADL specializes in anti-Semitism, civil rights, Holocaust denial, terrorism, hate online, homophobia,
JDL (The Jewish Defense League)
Author: Irv Rubin
The Jewish Defense League claims to be the most controversial of all Jewish organizations. Through its website and chapters, the JDL is firmly committed to fighting Holocaust deniers and anti-Semitism in the world. This web site is dedicated to the Six Million - and millions of innocent Gentiles - and to the American forces and their allies who fought, and sometimes died, so heroically against the Third Reich.
Author: Kenneth McVay
This web site is dedicated to the millions of Holocaust victims who suffered and died at the hands of Adolf Hitler and his Nazi regime. It is content-rich and indexed professionally, cross-referenced, and contains much information about refuting Holocaust deniers. Nizkor is the Hebrew word for "we will remember".
THHP (The Holocaust History Project)
The Holocaust History Project is a free archive of documents, photographs, recordings, and essays regarding the Holocaust, including direct refutation of Holocaust-denial.
Author: Raymond Franklin
The Hate Directory is maintained and presented as an aid in identifying and tracking the proliferation of hate groups on the Internet and other new electronic media. The Directory is an historical document as well as a current reference and includes current sites as well as those no longer in operation. Included are Internet sites of individuals and groups that, in the opinion of the author, advocate violence against, separation from, defamation of, deception about, or hostility toward others based upon race, religion, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation.
Ben Austin's Sociology Corner:
Author: Ben Austin
The author argues that Holocaust denial may seem preposterous. He discusses how can anyone deny the most extensively documented period in world history? He also discusses why would anyone want to deny the Holocaust? What are their motivations?
Holocaust Revisionism and Neo-Nazism (Part of the Radical Religious Right Pages):
Author: Ron Buckmire
This web page is part of the Queer Resources Directory. In addition to the 'traditional' form of anti-Semitic Holocaust revisionism, practiced by the extremist fringes of the religious right such as the Institute for Historical Review, a new form of anti-gay Holocaust revisionism, endorsed and sponsored by the somewhat more mainstream religious right. The new anti-gay Holocaust revisionism alleges that gay men were not particularly persecuted under the German Nazi regime, and additionally, that homosexual men were especially prevalent in the ranks of German Naziism, and were in large part, the motivators of the Jewish Holocaust.
Author: David Rice
Holysmoke is a web site that looks at the facts about frauds, and fakes. This site addresses the harm inflicted upon the academic scholarly community. This site addresses the financial, emotional, and intellectual injury caused by the lucrative business of fraud and deceit.
Literature of the Holocaust:
Author: Al Filreis
Literature of the Holocaust is an alphabetical index to web articles that deal with the Holocaust related literature. The articles are archived on Filreis' site and are in full text.
Psychosocial Aspects of Holocaust Denial
Author: Cecelia Clancy
This web site attempts to study the sociological and psychological aspects of "Holocaust denial," also called "Holocaust Revisionism." This web site contains a bibliography, webography, and a list of links to other Holocaust denial rebuttal sites. This site seeks to achieve an qualitative sociological and psychological study of the phenomenon. For this, I am actively seeking two distinct groups of people.
Stop the Hate
Author: a large web portal that appears to be devoted to high school and University students. It contains many links to hate sites, divided by subject: Anti-hate resources and support, neo-Nazi and Nationalist hate groups, the Ku Klux Klan, Religion based hate groups, Militia and pseudo Patriot Groups.
The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism
Author: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Vidal Sassoon International Center (SICSA) was established in 1982 as an interdisciplinary research center dedicated to an independent, non-political approach to the accumulation and dissemination of knowledge necessary for understanding the phenomenon of antisemitism. The Center engages in research on anti-Semitism throughout the ages, focusing on relations between Jews and non-Jews, particularly in situations of tension and crisis.
The Simon Wiesenthal Center
Author: Rabbi Marvin Hier
The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish human rights organization dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. The Center confronts important contemporary issues including racism, anti-Semitism, terrorism and genocide and is accredited as an NGO both at the United Nations and UNESCO. With a membership of over 400,000 families, the Center is headquartered in Los Angeles and maintains offices in New York, Toronto, Miami, Jerusalem, Paris and Buenos Aires.
The Mazal Library
Author: Henry Mazal
The Mazal Library is a collection of free print and electronic resources related to the Holocaust, anti-Semitism, racism and bigotry. This is an excellent resource for historians, students, and the general public. It contains an electronic library of 70,000 scanned documents, microfilms, and overt 20,000 book titles.
Clancy, Cecelia, Cecelia Clancy's Bibliography on Holocaust Denial part one[online]URL: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Rhodes/5338/psa/citations.html
Clancy, Cecelia, Cecelia Clancy's Bibliography on Holocaust Denial part two [online]URL: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Rhodes/5338/psa/citations2.html
Drobnicki, John A. et al. 1994. Holocaust Denial Literature: A Bibliography. The Bulletin of Bibliography, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Mar. 1994 [online] URL: http://www.york.cuny.edu/~drobnick/holbib.html
- This bibliography includes both works about Holocaust revisionism and works of Holocaust revisionism. The scope of this bibliography has been limited to works in English.
Drobnicki, John A. 1996. Holocaust Denial Literature: An Additional Bibliography. The Bulletin of Bibliography The Bulletin of bibliography, Vol. 53, No. 4 (Dec. 1996): 359- 68. [online] URL: http://www.york.cuny.edu/~drobnick/holbib2.html
-This bibliography is a supplement to one published in the March 1994 Bulletin of Bibliography. During the intervening time, Holocaust revisionism has continued to be discussed both in the scholarly literature and the mainstream press.
Drobnicki, John A. 1998. Holocaust Denial Literature: A Third Bibliography. The Bulletin of Bibliography from The Bulletin of Bibliography, Vol. 55, No. 3 (Sept. 1998): 157-168. [online] URL: http://www.york.cuny.edu/~drobnick/holbib3.html
-This bibliography is a supplement to two earlier ones published in the March 1994 and December 1996 issues of the Bulletin of Bibliography. Holocaust revisionism has continued to be discussed both in scholarly literature and in the mainstream press. Holocaust-denial and Holocaust revisionism are used interchangeably in this bibliography.
Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism 1999. Holocaust Denial: A Selected Bibliography. Prepared for the International Conference ?The Dynamics of Antisemitism in the Second Half of the 20th Century? The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Jerusalem, June 13-16 1999 [online] URL: http://sicsa.huji.ac.il/denial.html
-This selected list from the ongoing annotated database of the Felix Posen Bibliographic Project has been prepared for the International Conference The Dynamics of Anti-Semitism in the Second Half of the 20th Century on June 13-16, 1999.
If you're looking for Holocaust Denial on the web, you may be able to track down a site which features it. Using a search engine such as Google (http://www.google.com/), search with the following key words
Some Subject Guides like Yahoo, the Google Directory, and DMOZ have set up subject categories for Holocaust Denial. They are listed below:
Google Directory Categories:
Society: Issues: Race-Ethnic-Religious Relations: Holocaust Denial
If you are looking for more books on this topic, they can be found under the call number 940.5318 in a public library, and the Library of Congress call numbers starting with D 804.355 in most university libraries. If you wish to look up similar titles in either a card catalog or an on-line library catalog, the official Library of Congress Subject Headings under which they can be found are:
Holocaust, Jewish 1939-1945—errors, inventions, etc.
Holocaust Denial Literature
Below is a selected list of print resources which may help you learn about the social movement of Holocaust denial. Most of these books will probably be found in your local public library:
Bercuson, David Jay. &Douglas Wertheimer. 1985. A trust betrayed : the Keegstra affair Toronto, Ont. : Doubleday Canada, 1985.
-This book chronicles the life and times of James Keegstra, a professor in Alberta who was disseminating information about Holocaust denial to his students.
Caplan, Marc. 1993. Hitler's Apologists The Anti-Semitic Propaganda of Holocaust "Revisionism." New York Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, 1993.
-The author discusses how Holocaust Revisionism is anti Semitism in scholarly disguise.
Churchill, Ward. 1998. A little matter of genocide : holocaust and denial in the Americas, 1492 to the present Winnipeg : Arbeiter Ring Pub., c1998.
-The book is a comprehensive historical account of the many Jewish Holocausts throughout Jewish history from the crusades to the modern day Holocaust of world war 2.
Cohn, Werner. 1995. Partners in hate: Noam Chomsky &the Holocaust Deniers. Avukah Publications
-The author discusses how the Jewish linguist Noam Chomsky supports Holocaust Deniers because he supports the first Amendment of freedom of speech.
Dawidowicz, Lucy S. What is the use of Jewish history? essays / by Lucy S. Dawidowicz ; edited and with an introduction by Neal Kozodoy. — 1st ed. —New York Schocken Books, c1992.
-Essays written by Dawidowicz before she died. The author questions the future of Jewish history because Holocaust denial tries to change and cover up Jewish history. Edited by Neal Kozodoy.
Finkielkraut, Alain. 1998. The future of a negation reflections on the question of genocide / Alain Finkielkraut ; translated by Mary Byrd Kelly ; with an introduction by Richard J. Golsan. Lincoln University of Nebraska Press, c1998.
-The author discusses the negative implications of how Holocaust denial may lead to more genocide and possibly another Jewish holocaust.
Kulaszka, Barbara, ed. 1992. Did six million really die? : report of the evidence in the Canadian 'false news' trial of Ernst Zundel, 1988 Toronto : Samisdat Publ., 1992
-This book reports on the trial of Ernst Zundel and his propaganda that the Holocaust is a conspiracy theory made by Jews to receive more money for Israel and to gain more exposure in Hollywood.
Jackel, Eberhard 1993. David Irving's Hitler : A Faulty History Dissected, translated by H. David Kirk. Ben-Simon Publications
-A small book with two essays about how the Jewish Holocaust was a falsehood and that it is an incorrect part of history. Irving writes to set people straight on the truth.
Kuttner, Paul. 1996. Holocaust , Hoax or History? The Book of Answers to Those Who Would Deny the Holocaust. New York Dawnwood Press
-The book is composed of the main arguments made by deniers, and Kuttner's rebuttals arebased on historical documents and testimonies. Some of them allege that the Holocaust did not take place at all; others try to diminish its scope or relativize it. Some revisionists, although they do not deny the fact of the mass murder of Jews, challenge the existence of killing centers and gas chambers, or try to absolve perpetrators or collaborator groups of responsibility.
Lipstadt, Deborah E. 1994. Denying the Holocaust : The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory New York : Free Press ; Toronto : Maxwell Macmillan Canada ; New York : Maxwell Macmillan International
-Lipstadt analyses the phenomenon of Holocaust denial, which originated in the myth of the Jewish conspiracy and radical anti-Jewish propaganda. She examines the activities and writings of Holocaust deniers in France, the USA, and in Great Britain.
Littman, Sol 1994. Holocaust denial : bigotry in the guise of scholarship Series: A Simon Wiesenthal Center report Simon Wiesenthal Center [Los Angeles, Calif.] : Simon Weisenthal Center, 1994
-Littman attempts to show how Holocaust denial is dangerous for the Jewish population because it fools people to believe that it is scholarly, when it is really anti Semitism.
Richard Korherr and his reports: Secret German Statistical Reports on the Final Solution Originally Published in 1943 (Holocaust Series) 1996 Gordon Press
-This book series claims that the 1943 documents show the most authoritative statistical records that show the fate of Europe's Jews.
Seidel, Gill. 1986. The Holocaust denial : antisemitism, racism &the new right Leeds, England : Beyond the Pale Collective, 1986
-Describes the events of the Holocaust, and present-day Holocaust denial, as part of the continuing history of antisemitism. He Analyzes manifestations of Holocaust denial and neo-Nazism in Great Britain, France, West Germany, and the USA, giving details of specific persons and organizations and their international links (e.g. Arthur Butz, William Grimstad, Lenni Brenner, Robert Faurisson, David Irving, GRECE, the Institute for Historical Review). Also discusses anti-Zionism as a form of antisemitism.
Shermer, Michael et al. 2000. Denying History : Who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and Why Do They Say It
-This book takes an in-depth look at those who say the Holocaust never happened and explores the motivations behind such claims. Historians Michael Shermer and Alex Grobman interview and follow the lives of these Holocaust Deniers to try to understand their motives .
Stein, Howard F.1981. The Holocaust and the Myth of the Past As History (Revisionist Historiography Series) Revisionist Press.
-This book series explores the Holocaust as discourse that is untrue, fabricated, exaggerated, and mythologized.
Stern, Kenneth S. 1993. Holocaust Denial. New York : American Jewish Committee
-The book explains the history behind Holocaust denial. The author offers strategies in order to deal with the deniers.
Vidal-Naquet, Pierre 1994. Assassins of Memory: Essays on the Denial of the Holocaust, Columbia University Press : New York
-Translated from French with a foreword, by Jeffrey Mehlman. Historian Vidal-Naquet offers a detailed look at the ideology Holocaust revisionism.
Charny, Israel W, ed. 1999. Encyclopedia of genocide Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO, 1999.
-The Encyclopedia of Genocide is the first reference work to chart the full extent of this horrific subject with objectivity and authority. The Nazi Holocaust; the genocides in Armenia, Cambodia, Rwanda, and the former Yugoslavia; and the eradication of indigenous peoples around the world are all covered in A-to-Z entries, written by almost 100 experts from many countries.
Edelheit, Abraham J., History of the Holocaust : a handbook and dictionary, Boulder : Westview Press, 1994.
-This two-part volume combines an accessible overview of contemporary Jewish history with a unique dictionary of Holocaust terms. In addition to assessing the Holocaust specifically, Part 1 of the book discusses the history of European Jewry, anti-Semitism, the rise and fall of Nazism and fascism, World War II, and the postwar implications of the Holocaust. Part 2 provides a complete dictionary of terms relating to the Holocaust compiled from dozens of primary and secondary sources in a range of languages. Included is a comprehensive set of tables on anti-Jewish legislation, anti-Semitic organizations, concentration camps, fascism, the Third Reich, the Nazi Party, Jewish and nonsectarian organizations, publications, and resistance movements. Graphs, photographs, and documents supplement the text, and an extensive bibliography as well as separate person, place, and subject indexes make this an excellent reference tool.
Gutman, Israel, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, New York : Macmillan Pub. Co., c1990.
-This book aims to document "the Holocaust from the rise and growth of Nazi ideology through the postwar period. There are geographic entries for regions, countries, cities, and sites of camps and massacres. Biographical entries include Nazis and collaborators, partisans, Jewish and non-Jewish leaders and resisters, rescuers of Jews, and those who have made the world aware of the Holocaust. Other entries explore the impact of the Holocaust, with information about survivors, trials of war criminals, reflections in literature, art, film, music, and theology; education on the Holocaust; and documentation centers.
Laqueur, Walter, The Holocaust encyclopedia, New Haven : Yale University Press, 2001
-The Holocaust Encyclopedia, edited by Walter Lacquer, who is a modern European historian who has taught at Harvard, Brandeis, and Tel Aviv University, fills an important gap in existing Holocaust literature. His book gathers accessible articles by many of the world's leading Holocaust scholars on the full range of people and places involved, from Adolph Hitler and Gypsies to Russia and the Soviet Union. The articles are complemented by a comprehensive chronology and an excellent bibliographical essay, and by almost 300 illustrations, including maps and photographs.
Spector, Shmuel, ed. 2001. The Encyclopedia of Jewish life before and during the Holocaust, consulting editor, Geoffrey Wigoder ; foreword by Ellie Wiesel. New York : New York University Press, 2001.
-The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust. Edited by Shmuel Spector and the late Geoffrey Wigoder and published in conjunction with Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Remembrance Authority of Israel, the Encyclopedia represents more than three decades of labour. Based on a thirty volume encyclopedia published only in Hebrew, this new condensed version makes this rich source of information available in English.
Spector, Shmuel, ed. 2000. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, New York : Facts on File, 2000.
-Encyclopedia of the Holocaust is a comprehensive, authoritative and reliable one-volume reference text. It features eight essays on the history of the Holocaust and its antecedents, coverage of such topics as the history of European Jewry, Jewish contributions to European culture, and the rise of anti-Semitism and Nazism; followed by more than 650 entries on significant aspects of the Holocaust, including people, cities and countries, camps, resistance movements, political actions, and outcomes; American Jewry and the Holocaust; Holocaust denial; films on the Holocaust; the Holocaust in Music; Nazi propaganda, youth movements; Holocaust museums and memorials; and more. With more than 300 black-and-white photographs from the Yad Vashem Archives.
This pathfinder created by Mark Aaron Polger.